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中国能源报告(2014):能源贫困研究
  • 书号:9787030407146
    作者:魏一鸣等
  • 外文书名:
  • 丛书名:中国能源报告
  • 装帧:平脊精装
    开本:16
  • 页数:240
    字数:354000
    语种:zh-Hans
  • 出版社:科学出版社
    出版时间:2014-06-01
  • 所属分类:F42 中国工业经济
  • 定价: ¥138.00元
    售价: ¥110.40元
  • 图书介质:
    纸质书 电子书

  • 购买数量: 件  可供
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能源贫困是全世界能源体系面临的三大挑战之一,得到了国际社会和学术界的广泛关注。中国是世界上最大的发展中国家,面临着更严峻、更复杂的能源贫困问题。
  本报告是《中国能源报告》系列研究报告的第五卷,从能源经济的视角入手,总结并提炼国际能源贫困评估方法,构建中国能源贫困度量和综合评价指标,从时间和空间维度评估中国能源贫困,并针对固体燃料利用对城乡居民健康影响、能源贫困与经济发展水平、清洁能源发展与能源贫困、气候变化与能源可获得性、消除能源贫困的政策与行动等重要问题开展系统研究。
  《中国能源报告》是系列研究报告,每两年出版一卷。根据国际、国内能源经济与气候政策形势的变化,每卷选择不同主题,开展有针对性的研究,突出研究的实证性和政策性,期望在科学研究的基础上,为国家相关决策部门提供参考和信息支持。
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目录

  • 目录
    前言
    缩写和缩略语
    第1章 世界能源发展与能源贫困 1
    1.1 世界能源发展概况 2
    1.1.1 能源消费持续增长,各国增速差异较大 2
    1.1.2 化石能源占主要地位,清洁能源发展迅速 3
    1.1.3 化石能源储量丰富,区域分布不均 4
    1.1.4 能源贸易以石油为主,天然气贸易增长迅速 6
    1.1.5 能源贫困广泛存在,发展中国家尤为突出 7
    1.2 中国能源发展的基本特征 8
    1.2.1 能源供需增长较快,对外依存度持续上升 8
    1.2.2 能源工业体系相对完整,产供需流图与发达国家显著不同 10
    1.2.3 煤炭供需逆向分布,大规模长距离调运突出 11
    1.2.4 国内石油产量缺口较大,交通用油增长较快 12
    1.2.5 天然气供需增长快,用气人口大幅增长 13
    1.2.6 电源结构绿色化转型加快,电力跨区调度量较大 14
    1.2.7 能源资源短缺问题尚未解决,现代能源服务体系初步建立 15
    1.3 世界与中国能源发展的新变化和新格局 17
    1.3.1 世界经济企稳向好,国际能源市场不确定性因素减少 17
    1.3.2 世界龍源格局正发生深刻调整,美国“能源独立”迈出实质性步伐 18
    1.3.3 中国节能减碳难度增大,落实总量和强度双控制目标任务艰巨 19
    1.3.4 中国大气污染严重,防治工作受到前所未有的高度重视 19
    1.4 能源贫困与世界能源贫困的主要特征 20
    1.4.1 发展中国家电力普遍服务水平较低,加大全球减贫难度 20
    1.4.2 发展中国家低效消费传统生物质能,引发环境及健康问题突出 22
    1.4.3 发达国家能源贫困群体生活用能支出占比较高,影响社会整体公平 24
    1.5 国际组织应对能源贫困的方案和行动 25
    1.5.1 联合国:倡议“人人享有可持续能源 25
    1.5.2 世界卫生组织:关注固体燃料利用与室内空气污染和健康 27
    1.5.3 国际能源署:持续评估发展中国家能源贫困状况 28
    1.5.4 世界银行:响应“人人享有可持续能源”倡议 29
    第2章 中国能源贫困的度量与总体特征 31
    2.1 能源贫困概述 32
    2.1.1 能源贫困概念 32
    2.1.2 本报告涉及的中国能源贫困界定 33
    2.2 能源贫困度量方法及其对中国的适用性 34
    2.2.1 基于能源可获得性的能源贫困度量方法 35
    2.2.2 基于能源服务质量的能源贫困度量方法 37
    2.2.3 基于满足人类能源需求的能源贫困度量方法 38
    2.2.4 能源贫困度量方法的中国适用性分析 41
    2.3 中国能源贫困的主要特征 43
    2.3.1 电力已基本实现全覆盖,商品能源消费量不断增加 43
    2.3.2 城乡生活用能差异显著,农村能源贫困问题更加突出 45
    2.3.3 农村生活用能地域差异明显,生活用能以固体燃料为主 48
    2.3.4 农村用能设施落后低效,清洁炊具普及率低 49
    2.3.5 生活用能价格上涨,生活用能支出占比城乡分化 50
    2.4 本章小结 54
    第3章 中国能源贫困的综合评估与区域比较 56
    3.1 能源贫困综合评估的指标和方法 57
    3.1.1 能源贫困综合评估指标体系的设计原则 57
    3.1.2 能源贫困综合评估指标体系的功能定位 58
    3.1.3 中国能源贫困综合评估指标体系 59
    3.1.4 能源贫困综合评估计算方法 66
    3.2 中国能源贫困的综合评估 69
    3.2.1 能源贫困整体状况呈下降趋势 70
    3.2.2 能源服务可获得性有所改善 71
    3.2.3 能源消费清洁性没有显著变化 72
    3.2.4 能源管理完备性在提升中有所反复 73
    3.2.5 生活用能可支付性及高效性不断改善 73
    3.3 中国能源贫困的区域比较 75
    3.3.1 黄河中游地区和长江中游地区综合能源贫困状况尤为突出 75
    3.3.2 长江中游地区能源服务可获得性相对较低 76
    3.3.3 黄河中游地区能源消费清洁性相对较低 76
    3.3.4 东部沿海地区能源管理完备性相对较差 77
    3.3.5 东北地区生活用能可支付性和高效性相对较差 78
    3.4 中国区域能源贫困现状特征和变化趋势 79
    3.5 消除中国区域能源贫困的政策建议 82
    3.5.1 加大对农村地区的能源基础建设投入,加强农村能源管理和推广机构的建设 86
    3.5.2 提升非固体商品能源消费比重,推广现代清洁的生物质能利用方式 86
    3.5.3 降低居民家庭商业用能相对成本,鼓励采用现代化和清洁高效的生活用能设备 87
    3.6 本章小结 87
    第4章 能源贫困对城镇居民健康的影响 89
    4.1 能源贫困与城镇居民健康研究进展 90
    4.1.1 发展中国家:能源供给不足,关注室内空气污染对居民健康影响 90
    4.1.2 发达国家:能源支出较高,聚焦相关政策成效对居民健康影响 91
    4.2 中国城镇居民能源消费与能源贫困 93
    4.2.1 城镇商品能源消费水平虽远高于农村地区,但相比发达国家仍处于较低水平 93
    4.2.2 能源消费结构逐渐优化,清洁能源比重逐步提高 95
    4.2.3 城镇能源基础设施建设状况不断改善,城市燃气普及率不断提高 95
    4.3 能源贫困与城镇居民健康 96
    4.3.1 室内热舒适程度低是危害我国居民健康的重要因素 96
    4.3.2 燃料选择和能源使用导致的室内空气污染对居民健康造成直接危害 97
    4.3.3 建筑材料结构和设施是影响居民健康的重要因素 98
    4.3.4 农村燃料燃烧的污染物区域扩散危害城镇居民健康 99
    4.4 消除能源贫困对城镇居民健康影响的政策建议 100
    4.5 本章小结 101
    第5章 农村固体燃料利用及其对居民健康的影响 103
    5.1 能源贫困与农村居民健康研究进展 104
    5.1.1 国际重要学术期刊和权威学者对固体燃料利用问题高度关注 104
    5.1.2 针对固体燃料利用造成的室内空气污染与健康之间的因果效应开展研究 105
    5.1.3 探究减轻固体燃料利用造成室内空气污染对健康影响的措施 105
    5.1.4 陆续关注室内空气污染对家庭经济福利的间接影响 106
    5.1.5 部分国外学者针对中国部分地区开展了长期跟踪研究 107
    5.2 大样本问卷调研数据来源与说明 108
    5.3 农村居民炊事用能现状与趋势 110
    5.3.1 农村居民炊事用能现状(2011年) 110
    5.3.2 农村居民炊事用能的历史变化趋势(1989~2011年) 113
    5.4 固体燃料利用对农村居民健康的影响 118
    5.4.1 室内污染空气中暴露程度大的居民受到的健康危害更大 119
    5.4.2 使用固体燃料的居民呼吸系统疾病患病率更高 121
    5.5 消除能源贫困对农村居民健康影响的政策建议 124
    第6章 能源贫困与经济发展互动关系 126
    6.1 能源贫困与经济发展关系概述 127
    6.2 经济发展水平对能源贫因影响机理研究 130
    6.2.1 经济发展与炊事能源选择 130
    6.2.2 收入水平与生活电力消费 131
    6.2.3 收入水平与传统生物质能消费量 132
    6.3 经济发展水平与生活电力消费关系的实证分析 134
    6.3.1 经济发展促进生活电力消费 134
    6.3.2 经济发展有利于改善居民生活用能结构 136
    6.3.3 生活电力消费促进经济发展 138
    6.4 本章小结 139
    第7章 清洁能源发展与能源贫困 141
    7.1 世界可再生能源发展与能源贫困 142
    7.1.1 可再生能源利用促进各国能源发展 142
    7.1.2 主要能源贫困国家的可再生能源利用现状 147
    7.2 中国清洁能源开发有助于减缓能源贫困 148
    7.2.1 风电发展迅速,有助于消除能源贫困 149
    7.2.2 水力资源丰富,覆盖相当一部分能源贫困人口所在区域 151
    7.2.3 太阳能利用多元化,可解决能源贫困人口的用能问题 151
    7.2.4 生物质能有效利用,有助于消除农村能源贫困 153
    7.2.5 核能潜力巨大,将成为未来消除能源贫困的有效手段 153
    7.3 能源贫困视角下区域清洁能源发展评估 154
    7.3.1 清洁能源发展评估框架及数据来源 154
    7.3.2 东北及西北地区清洁能源发展不足使得能源贫困问题亟待解决 157
    7.3.3 西南地区可再生能源发展为解决能源贫困问题发挥重要作用 159
    7.4 本章小结 160
    第8章 气候变化及其应对政策与能源贫困 162
    8.1 气候变化对能源供应的影响 163
    8.1.1 破坏电网稳定运行 163
    8.1.2 威胁能源正常生产 164
    8.1.3 阻碍清洁能源开发利用 164
    8.2 气候变化对水力发电的影响评估 165
    8.2.1 未来中国水力发电的气候变化易损性日益增大 166
    8.2.2 中国水力发电的气候变化易损性具有显著区域差异性 169
    8.3 极端气候事件下电力中断的社会经济影响 170
    8.3.1 中国总体宏观经济负面影响明显大于日本 173
    8.3.2 生产能力受影响程度不同是造成中日宏观经济影响差异的根本原因 174
    8.3.3 中日9个关键部门产出受负面影响程度差异较大 175
    8.3.4 结构性因素是造成中日关键部门影响差异的原因 177
    8.4 应对气候变化政策对减缓能源贫困的影响 178
    8.4.1 碳排放交易政策促进电源结构改善 179
    8.4.2 排污税和碳税等财税政策提升清洁能源发电比例 181
    8.4.3 阶梯电价政策促进能源公平利用 182
    8.4.4 进出口贸易政策和绿色信贷等金融政策将改善居民能源消费结构 183
    8.5 本章小结 183
    第9章 消除能源贫困政策与行动 185
    9.1 国际消除能源贫困政策与行动 186
    9.1.1 电价机制 186
    9.1.2 家庭能源补贴 186
    9.1.3 可再生能源研发投入 187
    9.1.4 电力基础设施建设 188
    9.2 中国消除能源贫困政策与行动 191
    9.2.1 边远地区消除能源贫困政策与行动 191
    9.2.2 农村地区消除能源贫困政策与行动 194
    9.2.3 城镇地区消除能源贫困政策与行动 198
    9.3 本章小结 199
    第10章 减缓能源贫困的机遇与挑战 201
    10.1 能源贫困是国际社会共同面临的重大挑战 202
    10.1.1 制约经济发展 202
    10.1.2 危害居民健康 202
    10.1.3 阻碍民生改善 202
    10.1.4 加大减贫难度 203
    10.2 中国在应对能源贫困挑战方面成效显著 203
    10.2.1 贫困人口不断减少,能源贫困状况持续改善 203
    10.2.2 电力服务基本普及,电力普遍服务不断深化 204
    10.2.3 城市居民用能结构持续改善,棚户区改造减缓城镇能源贫困状况 205
    10.2.4 衣村地区能源利用效率提高,清洁化程度不断加大 205
    10.2.5 能源基础设施建设不断完善,为改善能源贫困提供良好物质基础 206
    10.3 中国在新发展阶段中的能源贫困挑战 206
    10.3.1 能源贫困地区差异较大,城乡二元化特点明显 206
    10.3.2 能源消费结构不断调整,可再生和清洁能源消费比重仍较低 207
    10.3.3 能源贫困引发的健康问题日益突出,用能相关的环境污染不断加剧 208
    10.3.4 气候变化影响能源可获得性,加剧消除能源贫困的难度 210
    10.3.5 经济贫困仍制约能源贫困的改善,收入提高对能源贫困有双向作用 210
    10.4 消除能源贫困的若干政策建议 211
    10.4.1 推进阶梯能源价格,调节城乡价格差异 211
    10.4.2 统筹区域间能源供给关系,先规划后开工 211
    10.4.3 吸引民间资本,合理分散风险 211
    10.4.4 保护生态环境,杜绝以生态利益换取经济利益 212
    10.4.5 继续发挥西部地区能源资源丰富优势,坚持“西部大开发”战略 212
    10.4.6 加快新型城镇化建设,借助城镇化契机改善能源贫困状況 212
    参考文献 214
    附录1 图目录 226
    附录2 表目录 230
    后记 239
    Contents
    Preface
    Abbreviations
    Chapter l Global energy development and energy poverty 1
    1.1 General situation of energy development in world 2
    1.1.1 Energy consumption increases steadily, but the growth rates are different among countries 2
    1.1.2 Fossil energy dominates world's energy consumption, while renewable energy develops quickly 3
    1.1.3 World fossil energy reserves are still rich but distribute unevenly 4
    1.1.4 Energy trade is crude oil predominantly, but natural gas trade is growing rapidly 6
    1.1.5 Energy poverty exists widely and that in developing countries is prominent especially 7
    1.2 Characteristics of China's energy development 8
    1.2.1 Energy supply and demand grow rapidly and the dependence degree on foreign trade continues to increase 8
    1.2.2 The energy industry system is relatively complete and the flow chart of production and demand is significantly different compared with that of developed countries 10
    1.2.3 Coal supply and demand distribute reversely and long-distance and large-scale transportation is prominent 11
    1.2.4 Gap of domestic oil production is big and oil use in traffic grows fast faster growth 12
    1.2.5 Natural gas supply and demand grow fast and the population demanding natural gas increases sharply 13
    1.2.6 Greenization of power structure speeds up and electricity amount from regional dispatching is large 14
    1.2.7 Problem of energy resources shortage has not been solved and modern energy services system is established preliminarily 15
    1.3 New changes and patterns of energy development in the world and China 17
    1.3.1 The world's economy is beginning to stabilize and recover and uncertainties in international energy market reduce 17
    1.3.2 The global energy pattern is adjusting profoundly and the American energy independence takes the subs tantial step 18
    1.3.3 China's energy-saving and carbon reduction are more difficult and implementations of both targets of total amount and intensity control are tough 19
    1.3.4 China's air pollution is serious and the work in air pollution prevention has received unprecedented attention 19
    1.4 Energy poverty and leading features of energy poverty in the world 20
    1.4.1 Universal service level of electricity in developing countries is low, increasing the difficulty of global poverty reduction 20
    1.4.2 Household energy in developing countries relies on traditional biomass causing prominent environment and health problems 22
    1.4.3 Proportions of household energy expenditure of residents with energy poverty in developed countries are high, making the impact on social justice 24
    1.5 Addressing energy poverty: actions and plans from international organizations 25
    1.5.1 United Nations: "Sustainable Energy for All" initiative 25
    1.5.2 World Health Organization: paying attention to solid fuels utilization and indoor air pollution and health 27
    1.5.3 International Energy Agency: evaluations of energy poverty in developing countries continually 28
    1.5.4 World Bank: responses to the "Sustainable Energy for All" initiative 29
    Chapter 2 Measurements and general characteristics of energy poverty in China 31
    2.1.2 Definition of energy poverty in China in this report 33
    2.2 Measurement methods of energy poverty and the applicability in China 34
    2.2.1 Measurement methods based on energy availability 35
    2.2.2 Measurement methods based on quality of energy service 37
    2.2.3 Measurement methods based on meeting energy demand of human 38
    2.2.4 Applicability of measurement methods of energy poverty in China 41
    2.3 Characteristics of energy poverty in China 43
    2.3.1 Power has been fully covered and the commercial energy consumption increases constantly 43
    2.3.2 Differences of household energy use in urban and rural are significantly and the energy poverty in rural is prominent 45
    2.3.3 Geographical differences in rural household energy use are obviously and the energy consumption is dominated by solid fuel 48
    2.3.4 Rural energy facilities are inefficient and outdated and the penetration rate of clean cooking utensils is low 49
    2.3.5 Household energy prices rise and the proportions of household energy expenditure in urban and rural are differential 50
    2.4 Chapter summary 54
    Chapter 3 Comprehensive evaluation and regional comparison of China's energy poverty 56
    3.1 Comprehensive evaluation criteria and methods of energy poverty 57
    3.1.1 Design principles of comprehensive evaluation criteria of energy poverty 57
    3.1.2 Function of comprehensive evaluation criteria of energy poverty 58
    3.1.3 Comprehensive evaluation criteria of energy poverty in China 59
    3.1.4 Calculation method of comprehensive evaluation of energy poverty 66
    3.2 Comprehensive evaluation of China's energy poverty 69
    3.2.1 Energy poverty comprehensive index shows decreasing trend 70
    3.2.2 Energy service availability index improved slightly 71
    3.2.3 Energy consumption cleanliness index shows no significant change 72
    3.2.4 Energy management completeness index increased with fluctuation 73
    3.2.5 Household energy affordability and energy efficiency index increased continually 73
    3.3 Regional comparison of China's energy poverty 75
    3.3.1 Middle reaches of Yellow River and Yangtze River show the most significant overall energypoverty 75
    3.3.2 Middle reaches of Yangtze River show the worst energy availability 76
    3.3.3 Middle reaches of Yellow River show the worst energy cleanliness 76
    3.3.4 Eastern coastal regions show the worst energy management completeness 77
    3.3.5 Northeastern regions show the worst household energy affordability and lowest energy efficiency 78
    3.4 Current characteristics and trends of regional energy poverty 79
    3.5 Policy implications of energy poverty alleviation 82
    3.5.1 Increasing investment on energy infrastructure and improving performance of energy management and spread organization in rural area 86
    3.5.2 Increasing consumption rate of non-solid commercial energy in total energy and spreading modern and clean utilization of biomass 86
    3.5.3 Decreasing relative cost on household commercial energy consumption and encouraging utilizing modern, clean and efficient household energy consumption equipment 87
    3.6 Chapter summary 87
    Chapter 4 Energy poverty's impact on urban resident health 89
    4.1 Research progress 90
    4.1.1 Developing countries: focus on the impact of indoor air pollution on resident health 90
    4.1.2 Developed countries: focus on the effects of specific measures on resident health 91
    4.2 China's residential energy consumption and energy poverty in urban areas 93
    4.2.1 Energy consumption in urban areas stands on a lower level compared to that in developed countries, despite being higher than in rural areas 93
    4.2.2 Energy consumption structure has been improved and the share of clean energy has escalated 95
    4.2.3 Infrastructure construction in urban has been improved and the coverage of urban gas has been expanded 95
    4.3 Energy poverty and urban resident health 96
    4.3.1 Indoor thermal comfort is a significant factor affecting resident health 96
    4.3.2 Indoor air pollution due to fuel combustion poses a serious threat on resident health 97
    4.3.3 Household energy efficiency makes a remarkable impact on resident health 98
    4.3.4 Curbing the expansion of polluted areas沁 a valid way to improve resident health 99
    4.4 Policy implications on eliminating the impact of energy poverty on resident healthin urban areas 100
    4.5 Chapter summary 101
    Chapter 5 Solid fuels in rural and their impacts on resident health 103
    5.1 Research progress of energy poverty of rural resident health 104
    5.1.1 International journals and high-influent scholars pay high attention to solid fuel utilization 104
    5.1.2 Research on reason-effect relation between indoor air pollution and health caused by solid fuel utilization 105
    5.1.3 Measures to reduce the health impact of indoor air pollution and health caused by solid fuel utilization 105
    5.1.4 Attentions are paid to indirect impacts of indoor air pollution on household welfares 106
    5.1.5 Some overseas scholars make the long-term research on China's regions 107
    5.2 Data sources and descriptions of large-sample questionnaire survey 108
    5.3 Current situation and trend in rural household cooking energy utilization 110
    5.3.1 Current situation in rural household cooking energy utilization (2011) 110
    5.3.2 Historical change trend in rural household cooking energy utilization (1989-2011) 113
    5.4 The effects of solid fuel utilization on the health of rural residents 118
    5.4.1 Residents with more air pollution exposure suffer greater health hazard 119
    5.4.2 Residents using solid fuels are more likely to get respiratory system disease 121
    5.5 Policy implications to eliminate the effect of energy poverty on rural resident health 124
    Chapter 6 Interaction between energy poverty and economic development 126
    6.1 Reviews of the relationship between energy poverty and economic development 127
    6.2 Impact mechanism of energy poverty on economic development 130
    6.2.1 Economic development levels and cooking energy selection 130
    6.2.2 Income levels and household electricity consumption 131
    6.2.3 Income levels and traditional biomass consumption 132
    6.3 Empirical analysis of the relationship between economic development and electricity consumption 134
    6.3.1 Economic development promotes household electricity consumption 134
    6.3.2 Economic development helps to improve the household energy consumption structure 136
    6.3.3 Household electricity consumption promotes economic development 138
    6.4 Chapter summary 139
    Chapter 7 Clean energy development and energy poverty 141
    7.1 World renewable energy development and energy poverty 142
    7.1.1 Renewables promote energy development 142
    7.1.2 Utilization situation of renewables in those countries with energy poverty 147
    7.2 Clean energy development contributes to mitigate energy poverty in China 148
    7.2.1 Wind power develops rapidly and helps eradicate energy poverty 149
    7.2.2 The water resource is rich, covering a considerable part of energy poverty region 151
    7.2.3 Utilization diversification of solar power can reduce most of China's population without electricity 151
    7.2.4 Effective utilization of biomass is an effective way to solve the problem of energy poverty 153
    7.2.5 Nuclear energy with tremendous potential will become one of the most important means to eradicate energy poverty in the future 153
    7.3 Regional assessment on clean energy development: a view of energy poverty 154
    7.3.1 Conceptual framework and data resource of clean energy development assessment 154
    7.3.2 Insufficient clean energy development in Northeast and Northwest areas make energy poverty need to be solved urgently 157
    7.3.3 Renewable energy development in Southwest areas play an important role in solving the problem of energy poverty 159
    7.4 Chapter summary 160
    Chapter 8 Climate change and its coping strategies and energy poverty 162
    8.1 Impact of climate change on the energy supply 163
    8.1.1 Climate change might disrupt the power grid 163
    8.1.2 Climate change might reduce the energy production 164
    8.1.3 Climate change might hinder the progress of clean energy use 164
    8.2 Impact of climate change on the hydropower generation 165
    8.2.1 Vulnerability of China's future hydropower generation to climate change is increasing 166
    8.2.2 Significant difference of hydropower vulnerability in regional level 169
    8.3 Impact of electricity disruption under extreme climatic events on socioeconorruc systems 170
    8.3.1 Macroeconomic negative effect in China is significantly greater than that of Japan 173
    8.3.2 Differences of production capacity affected cause differences of macroeconomic impact between China and Japan fundamentally 174
    8.3.3 Differences of negative effects in nine key sectors' outputs in China and Japan are great 175
    8.3.4 Structural factors cause different influences in key sectors in China and Japan 177
    8.4 Impact of climate change policy on energy poverty mitigation 178
    8.4.1 Emissions trading policy improves the structure of power generation 179
    8.4.2 Fiscal taxation policies such as effluent charge and carbon tax encourage clean power generation 181
    8.4.3 Step tariff policy ensures the equity of energy use 182
    8.4.4 Financial policies such as import and export trade policy and green-credit policy allow a better energy consumption structure 183
    8.5 Chapter summary 183
    Chapter 9 Policies and actions of energy poverty eradication 185
    9.1 International policies and actions of energy poverty eradication 186
    9.1.3 Research and development on renewable energy 187
    9.2 China's policies and actions of energy poverty eradication 191
    9.2.1 Policies and actions of energy poverty eradication: remote regions 191
    9.2.2 Policies and actions of energy poverty eradication: rural regions 194
    9.2.3 Policies and actions of energy poverty eradication: urban regions 198
    9.3 Chapter summary 199
    Chapter 10 Achievements and prospects of energy poverty mitigation 201
    10.1 Energy poverty elimination is the unavoidable problem in areas of economy, health and livelihood 202
    10.1.1 Energy poverty restricts the economic development 202
    10.1.2 Energy poverty endangers residents' health 202
    10.1.3 Energy poverty hinders the improvement of livelihood 202
    10.1.4 Energy poverty increases the difficulty of poverty reduction 203
    10.2 Policies and actions to mitigate energy poverty have achieved remarkable results since the reform and open-up 203
    10.2.1 Population in poverty is decreasing and energy poverty situation continues to improve 203
    10.2.2 Electricity service has been popularized and universal service of electricity improve 203
    10.2.3 Energy structure of urban residents continues to improve and the reform of shanty town helps to improve the situation of towns' energy poverty 205
    10.2.4 Energy use efficiency and cleanness degree in rural areas are improving 205
    10.2.5 Construction of energy infrastructure accelerates continuously, providing the material foundation for improving the energy poverty 206
    10.3 Current challenges of improving energy poverty 206
    10.3.1 Regional difference in energy poverty is large and characteristics of urban and rural dualization are obvious 206
    10.3.2 Energy consumption structure keeps adjusting, but the proportion of clean energy consumption is still low 207
    10.3.3 Health problems caused by energy poverty are prominent and energy-related environmental pollution is growing increasingly 208
    10.3.4 Climate change make impacts on energy availability, aggravating the difficulty of energy poverty climination 210
    10.3.5 Energy poverty shows multiple performances, so administrative measures should be more abundant 210
    10.4 Policy evaluations and action suggestions of energy poverty elimination 211
    10.4.1 Boost ladder energy prices and adjust price differences in urban and rural areas 211
    10.4.2 Coordinate regional relations of energy supply and make plans before construction 211
    10.4.3 Attract private capital and spread risk reasonably 211
    10.4.4 Protect the ecological environment and completely eradicate exchanging ecological benfits for economic benefits 212
    10.4.5 Continue to make advantages of the rich energy resources in western regions and implement the "Western Development" strategy 212
    10.4.6 Speed up the construction of new-type urbanization and take the opportunity of urbanization to improve the energy poverty 212
    References 214
    Appendix 1 Figures 232
    Appendix 2 Tables 237
    Epilogue 239
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