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Atmospheric Acoustics(大气声学)
  • 书号:9787030455819
    作者:Xunren Yang
  • 外文书名:
  • 丛书名:
  • 装帧:圆脊精装
    开本:B5
  • 页数:412
    字数:400
    语种:en
  • 出版社:
    出版时间:2015-12-28
  • 所属分类:
  • 定价: ¥148.00元
    售价: ¥118.40元
  • 图书介质:
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  • 购买数量: 件  商品库存: 2
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目录

  • Contents
    Preface
    Foreword
    Chapter 1 Introduction1
    1.1 Scope of the discipline and historical review 1
    1.2 Structure and acoustic properties of the atmosphere 5
    1.2.1 Stratification structure of the atmosphere 5
    1.2.2 Turbulence structure of the atmosphere7
    1.2.3 The acoustic properties of the atmosphere10
    1.3 Thermodynamic relationships in the atmosphere12
    1.3.1 Equation of state and adiabatic equation 12
    1.3.2 Barometric equation and scale height, isothermal atmosphere and atmosphere with constant temperature gradient 14
    1.3.3 Potential temperature and Vaisala-Brunt frequency16
    1.4 Fundamental relations of atmospheric dynamics 18
    1.4.1 Equation of motion18
    1.4.2 Equation of continuity, equation of state, tensor presentation 19
    1.4.3 Conservation laws 20
    1.4.4 Geopotential altitude and coriolis force 22
    1.5 Types of atmospheric waves 23
    Chapter 2 Basic Concepts and Processing Methods29
    2.1 Wave equation in homogeneous atmosphere 29
    2.1.1 Derivation of the wave equation 29
    2.1.2 Velocity potential (acoustic potential) and wave equation including quantities of second order31
    2.1.3 Helmholtz equation32
    2.2 Energy relations in acoustic waves 33
    2.2.1 Energy and energy flow density in acoustic waves 33
    2.2.2 Momentum in acoustic waves and time-averaged values of acoustic pressure34
    2.2.3 Lagrange density in acoustic waves 36
    2.3 Wave equation in inhomogeneous atmosphere39
    2.3.1 Wave equation and solution-defining conditions39
    2.3.2 Review of the existing solutions 41
    2.4 WKB approximation 43
    2.4.1 General remarks43
    2.4.2 Airy functions 45
    2.4.3 The wave field in the presence of a turning point 47
    2.5 Normal mode solutions 49
    2.5.1 Image of virtual sources 49
    2.5.2 Integral representation of the field51
    2.5.3 Normal modes 53
    2.5.4 Cases of arbitrary boundaries55
    2.6 Basic concepts of geometrical (ray) acoustics56
    2.6.1 Wave fronts, rays and eikonal56
    2.6.2 Ray-tracing equations 58
    2.6.3 Fermat’s principle 60
    Chapter 3 Sound Propagation in Atmosphere —— Refraction and Reflection 62
    3.1 Sound propagation in quiescent homogeneous media63
    3.1.1 Parametric description of wave fronts 63
    3.1.2 Variation of principal radii of curvature along a ray64
    3.1.3 Caustic surface65
    3.2 Sound refraction in stratified inhomogeneous media 66
    3.2.1 Refraction caused by sound-speed gradients 66
    3.2.2 Refraction caused by windspeed gradients 68
    3.3 Acoustic rays in the atmosphere 70
    3.3.1 Ray integrals 71
    3.3.2 Rays in waveguides 71
    3.3.3 “Abnormal” propagation73
    3.4 Amplitude variations in quiescent media76
    3.4.1 Wave amplitude in quiescent and homogeneous media 76
    3.4.2 Energy conservation along rays: extension to slowly-varying media 78
    3.5 Amplitude variations in moving media80
    3.5.1 Wave equation in moving media 80
    3.5.2 Conservation of wave action quantities81
    3.5.3 The Blokhintzev (Vlohincev) invariant 83
    3.6 Sound wave reflection from the interface between two media 84
    3.6.1 Reflection of plane waves from rigid boundaries85
    3.6.2 Reflection of plane waves at planes with finite specific acoustic impedances86
    3.6.3 Locally-reacting surfaces87
    3.6.4 Sound field above reflecting surfaces 88
    3.7 Effects of ground surfaces89
    3.7.1 Expressions of sound fields above porous half-space media 90
    3.7.2 Ground wave and surface wave 91
    3.7.3 Four-parameter semi-empirical expression for calculating ground impedances93
    3.7.4 Excess attenuation due to the ground surfaces95
    3.7.5 Effects of topography95
    Chapter 4 Sound Scattering and Diffraction in Atmosphere 100
    4.1 Basic concepts of scattering 101
    4.1.1 Scattering of fixed rigid object 101
    4.1.2 Scattering cross section103
    4.2 Scattering due to non-homogeneity 104
    4.2.1 Differential equation for scattering 104
    4.2.2 Integral equation for scattering 105
    4.2.3 Asymptotic expression for scattered waves106
    4.2.4 Born approximation107
    4.3 Interactions between atmospheric turbulences and acoustic waves108
    4.3.1 Separating acoustic waves from turbulence 109
    4.3.2 Wave equation in turbulent atmosphere 109
    4.3.3 Interaction mechanisms between turbulence and acoustic waves114
    4.4 Sound scattering in turbulent atmosphere119
    4.4.1 Scattering cross section 119
    4.4.2 Power ratio121
    4.4.3 Power spectra 122
    4.5 Sound diffraction in quiescent atmosphere123
    4.5.1 Point source above a locally reacting surface125
    4.5.2 Sound field expressions in the shadow zone 127
    4.5.3 Series expansion of diffraction formula 129
    4.5.4 Creeping wave130
    4.5.5 Geometric-acoustical interpretation of creeping waves 132
    4.6 Sound diffraction in moving atmosphere134
    4.6.1 Fundamental equations and formal solutions134
    4.6.2 Normal mode expansions . 136
    4.6.3 Asymptotic expressions for the eigen-values 138
    4.6.4 Asymptotic expressions of the eigen-functions139
    4.6.5 Approximated expressions for the diffraction field143
    4.6.6 Analyses and conclusions145
    Chapter 5 Sound Absorption in Atmosphere150
    5.1 Classical absorption151
    5.1.1 Equation of motion for viscous fluid——Navier-Stokes equation 151
    5.1.2 Equation of heat-conduction153
    5.1.3 Energy relationships of acoustic waves in viscous and heatconducting fluids 154
    5.1.4 Sound absorption coefficient in viscous and heat-conducting fluids156
    5.1.5 Practical classical sound absorption coefficient158
    5.1.6 Wave modes in viscous and heat-conducting media 159
    5.2 Molecular rotational relaxation absorption 163
    5.2.1 Absorption mechanism for modes of the internal degrees of freedom 163
    5.2.2 Rotational relaxation contributions 164
    5.2.3 Collision reaction rate 165
    5.2.4 Absorption coefficient due to rotational relaxation166
    5.3 Molecular vibrational relaxation absorption 167
    5.3.1 The exchange rate in mole numbers for vibration excited molecules167
    5.3.2 Dynamic adiabatic compression modulus 170
    5.3.3 Vibration relaxation sound absorption coefficient 172
    5.3.4 Vibration relaxation frequencies for oxygen and nitrogen 173
    5.3.5 Mole fraction (molecular concentration) of water vapor174
    5.4 Total absorption coefficient and additional absorption177
    5.4.1 Total absorption coefficient 177
    5.4.2 Additional sound absorption179
    5.5 Sound absorption in fog and suspended particles180
    5.5.1 Historical review 180
    5.5.2 Basic analyses: mass transfer process182
    5.5.3 Further analyses 184
    Chapter 6 Effects from Gravity Field and Earth’s Rotation 187
    6.1 Wave system in quiescent atmosphere.189
    6.1.1 Fundamental equations and frequency dispersion equation189
    6.1.2 Internal waves191
    6.1.3 Phase velocity and group velocity193
    6.2 Waves in moving inhomogeneous atmosphere 195
    6.2.1 Fundamental equations and the processing procedures195
    6.2.2 Transition to isothermal atmosphere, slowly-varying atmosphere 198
    6.2.3 Velocity divergence equation200
    6.2.4 Energy density and lagrange density 201
    6.3 Polarization relations203
    6.3.1 Phase relations between perturbed quantities203
    6.3.2 Air-parcel orbits205
    6.3.3 Complex polarization terms207
    6.4 Rossby waves207
    6.4.1 Geostrophic wind 207
    6.4.2 Formation of Rossby wave 209
    6.4.3 Properties of Rossby wave 211
    6.5 External waves213
    6.5.1 Characteristic surface waves 213
    6.5.2 Comparison with internal waves215
    6.5.3 Boundary waves 217
    6.6 Atmospheric tides 220
    6.6.1 Outlines 220
    6.6.2 Theory222
    Chapter 7 Computational Atmospheric Acoustics228
    7.1 Fast field program (FFP) 230
    7.1.1 Helmholtz equation, axial symmetric approximation 231
    7.1.2 Solutions of the Helmholtz equation234
    7.1.3 Field at the receiver237
    7.1.4 Improvements to the accuracy of numerical evaluations 239
    7.1.5 FFP solutions in homogeneous atmosphere in two dimensions 240
    7.2 Parabolic equation (PE) method I: Crank-Nicholson parabolic equation (CNPE) method242
    7.2.1 Derivation of narrow-angle PE and wide-angle PE243
    7.2.2 Finite-difference solutions of narrow-angle PE and wide-angle PE 246
    7.2.3 Effects of density profile249
    7.2.4 Finite-element solutions250
    7.3 Parabolic equation (PE) method II: Green function parabolic equation (GFPE) method251
    7.3.1 Unbounded non-refracting atmosphere251
    7.3.2 Refracting atmosphere255
    7.3.3 Three-dimensional GFPE method 257
    7.4 Ray tracing 260
    7.4.1 Ray equations 260
    7.4.2 Concrete example for numerical integration— ray tracing for the infrasonic waves generated by typhoon264
    7.4A Ray theory for an absorbing atmosphere 266
    7.4A.1 The generalized dispersion equation267
    7.4A.2 The generalized Hamilton equation 271
    7.4A.3 The generalized ray equations and Fermat’s principle273
    7.5 Gaussian beam (GB) approach276
    Chapter 8 Acoustic Remote Sensing for the Atmosphere 281
    Part One Acoustic remote sensing for the lower atmosphere (troposphere) 282
    8I.1 Probing system 282
    8I.1.1 Monostatic configuration 283
    8I.1.2 Bistatic configuration, Doppler echosonde 285
    8I.2 The physical foundations of acoustic sounding 288
    8I.2.1 The principle of pulse-echo sounding the atmospheric non-homogeneities288
    8I.2.2 Scattering volumes delimited by electro-acoustic transducers 290
    8I.2.3 Acoustic radar equation 292
    8I.2.4 Incoherent scattering: bistatic acoustic sounding equation293
    8I.2.5 Echosonde equation 294
    8I.3 Outputs of the acoustic sounder296
    8I.3.1 Thermal plume detection 296
    8I.3.2 Monitoring of Inversions 297
    8I.3.3 Stable conditions and waves298
    8I.3.4 Quantitative comparisons 299
    8I.4 Systematical algorithm for acquiring wind profiles from SODAR301
    8I.4.1 Doppler frequency spectrum acquired from SODAR 301
    8I.4.2 Spatial resolution of Doppler frequency spectrum303
    8I.4.3 Modeling of wind velocity profile 303
    8I.4.4 Weight-function and covariance305
    8I.4.5 Application examples 306
    8I.5 Passive remote sensing 307
    Part Two Acoustic remote sensing for the upper atmosphere 308
    8II.1 Physical foundations of acoustic remote sensing for upper atmosphere309
    8II.1.1 Refraction 309
    8II.1.2 Absorption 310
    8II.1.3 Inferring upper atmospheric properties from acoustic measurements311
    8II.2 Detecting systems for remote sensing312
    8II.3 Recognition of waves in the atmosphere 314
    8II.4 Passive remote sensing of infrasonic waves existing objectively in atmosphere317
    8II.4.1 Global infrasonic monitoring network318
    8II.4.2 Some prospects 320
    Chapter 9 Non-linear Atmospheric Acoustics 322
    9.1 Non-linear effects in sound propagation322
    9.1.1 Plane waves in homogeneous media 322
    9.1.2 Synopsis of shock waves325
    9.1.3 Generation of harmonic waves 327
    9.1.4 Nonlinear dissipative waves, Burger’s equation 329
    9.1.5 Nonlinear waves propagating in inhomogeneous media332
    9.2 Sonic boom 333
    9.2.1 Fundamental theory of sonic boom 333
    9.2.2 Focus of sonic boom338
    9.2.3 Thickness of shock wave338
    9.2.4 Simulating programs of sonic boom 339
    9.3 Recent researches for sound waves in atmospheric turbulence340
    9.3.1 Influences from intermittence341
    9.3.2 Influences from anisotropy in small-sized turbulence 342
    9.3.3 Influence from quasi-periodic coherent structure of atmosphere boundary layer (ABL) on low-frequency power spectra of backwave signals344
    9.3.4 Influences from coherent structure on the propagation of pulses in ABL 344
    9.3.5 Sound scattering from anisotropy structure in mid-atmosphere 346
    9.3.6 Influences from turbulence on non-linear waves 346
    9.4 Atmospheric solitary waves 348
    9.4.1 Fundamental equations for atmospheric solitary waves 348
    9.4.2 Detection to atmospheric solitary waves352
    Chapter 10 Sound Sources in Atmosphere 355
    10.1 Fundamental sound sources 355
    10.1.1 Monopole sources355
    10.1.2 Dipole source 356
    10.1.3 Quadruple sources358
    10.1.4 Piston sources358
    10.1.5 Fluid sources 359
    10.2 Natural sound sources360
    10.2.1 Ocean waves360
    10.2.2 Heavy objects falling down into water366
    10.2.3 Violent firing369
    10.2.4 Strong wind 372
    10.2.5 Earthquake374
    10.2.6 Volcano eruption and meteorite fall 375
    10.2.7 Aurora 375
    10.2.8 Others 376
    10.3 Artificial sound sources376
    10.3.1 Airplanes376
    10.3.2 Rockets 377
    10.3.3 Explosions in upper atmosphere377
    10.3.4 Nuclear tests in atmosphere 377
    10.3.5 Explosion of U.S. space shuttle “Challenger”378
    References380
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