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土壤胶体 第二册 土壤胶体研究法


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土壤胶体 第二册 土壤胶体研究法
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  • 出版社:科学出版社
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  • 所属分类:S15 土壤学
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内容简介
本册分十三章,系统介绍了土壤胶体的分离和提纯,有机无机复合体的分组,粘粒矿物的定量分析和X射线鉴定,氧化物矿物的化学区分,以及土壤胶体的比表面、粘度、电荷、电动性质、亲水性和吸附特性的测定方法,土壤腐殖酸样品的制备和含氧功能团及分子量的测定等。还简要介绍了电子显微镜技术在土壤胶体研究中的应用。每章一般部包括基本原理和方法进展,并根据作者的工作经验,较详细地介绍了具体的测定方法。
本书可供农林科学工作者,特别是土壤科学、环境科学和土工、钻探、陶瓷等科技人员参考,也可作为高等院校有关专业师生的参考书。
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目录

  • Preface
    Chapter 1.Separation and Purification of Soil Colloid Zhang Jing-shen
    Ⅰ.Dispersion of Soil Colloid
    A.General Introduction of Dispersion Methods
    B.Dispersion of Different Soil Colloids
    C.Clay Dispersion for Identifying Clay Minerals of Soil
    Ⅱ.Separation and Preserv ation of Soil Colloid
    A.Sedimentation and Siphon Method for Separation
    B.Centrifuge Method for Separation
    C.Preservation of Colloid
    Ⅲ.Purification of Soil Colloid
    A.Dialysis Method
    B.Electro-dialysis Method
    C.Ion-exchang Resin Method
    Chapter 2.Fractionation of Soil Organo-mineral Complexes Fu Ji-ping
    Ⅰ.Advances in Fractionation Methods
    A.Peptizing Fractionation
    B.Particle Size Fractionation
    C.Densimetric Fractionation
    D.Combinative Fractionation
    Ⅱ.Peptizing Fractionation Method for Soil Complexes
    A.Principle of the Peptizing Fractionation
    B.Sedimentation Velocity of Complexes
    C.Separation Method
    Ⅲ.Determination of the Degree of Organo-mineral Complexing
    A.Concept of the Degree of Organo-mineral Complexing
    B.Principle of the Densimetric Fractionation
    C.Selection,Preparation,and Recovery of Heavy Liquids
    D.Determination Method
    Ⅳ.Determination of Soil Combined Humus
    A.Origin of the Method
    B.Determination Method
    Chapter 3.X-Ray Identification of Minerals in Soil Colloid Fraction Xu Ji-quan
    Ⅰ.Production and Properties of X-Ray
    Ⅱ.Detection and Recording of X-Ray
    Ⅲ.Diffraction of X-Ray by Crystals
    A.Fundmentary Character of Crystal Structure
    B.Condition of X-Ray diffraction by Crystals
    C.Diffraction Index
    D.Bragg Law
    E.Diffraction Intensity
    F.Principles of Powder Diffraction
    Ⅳ.Photographic Powder Method
    A.Debye-Scherrer Method
    B.Abnormal Phenomenon in Debye-Scherrer Pattern
    C.Guinier-de Wolff Fucsing camera
    Ⅴ.X-Ray Diffractometer
    Ⅵ.Specimen Preparation for Use with Diffractometer
    Ⅶ.Interpretation of Diffraction Pattern
    A.Evaluation of d-value and Intensity
    B.Identification of Mineral Species
    C.Diagnostic Characteristics of Some Important Layer Silicate Minerals
    D.X-Ray Analysis of Mixted Layer-Minerals
    Chapter 4.Quantitative Study of Clay Minerals Jiang Mei-ying and Yang De-yong
    Ⅰ.Review of Quantitative Methods
    Ⅱ.Mineralogical Analysis by Chemical Method
    A.Quantitative Method for Amorphous Material
    B.Quantitative Method for Kaolinite and Halloysite
    C.Quantitative Method for Transitional Mineral
    D.Quantitative Method for Montmorillonite and Vermiculite
    E.Quantitative Method for Chlorite
    F.Quantitative Method for Micas
    G.Quantitative Method for Feldspars and Quartz
    Ⅲ.Quantitative Mineralogical Analysis by X-Ray Method
    A.Principle
    B.Methods
    Ⅳ.Separation and Purification by Direc t Weighing Method
    Ⅴ.Examples of Quantitative Analysis for Soil Clay Minerals
    Chapter 5.Chemical Distinction of Oxide Minerals in Soil Colloid Chen Jia-fang and He Qun
    Ⅰ.Significance and Development of Chemical Distinction Methods
    Ⅱ.Separation of Free Iron Oxides
    A.Survey and Principle of the Methods
    B.Evaluation of the Methods
    C.Determination of Free Iron Oxides by Reduced Method of Sodium Thionite
    D.Brief Introduction of Other Methods
    Ⅲ.Distinction of Amorphous Iron Oxides
    A.Survey and Principle of the Methods
    B.Evaluation of the Extraction Method by Buffer Solution of Ammonium Oxalate
    C.Extraction Method by Buffer Solution of Ammonium Oxulate
    D.Brief Introduction of Other Methods
    Ⅳ.Separation of Complex-iron(Extracted by Sodium Pyrophosphate)
    A.Survey and Principle of the Methods
    B.Evaluation of the Methods
    C.Determination of Complex-iron
    Ⅴ.Ferrous Iron in Soil and Its Distinction
    A.Significance of Distinguishing the Ferrous Iron and Evaluation of Methods
    B.Determination of Total Amount Ferrous Iron in Soil
    Ⅵ.Distinction of Manganese Oxides in Soil
    A.Brief Introduction of Methods
    B.Determination of Easily Reducible Manganese
    Ⅶ.Distinction of Free Aluminum Oxide and Amorphous Aluminum
    A.Brief Introduction of Method
    B.Determination of Aluminum
    Ⅷ.Determination of Amorphous Sillca
    A.Brief Introduction of Method
    B.Determination of Amorphous Silica
    Ⅸ.Physico-chemical Methods Used in Distinction
    A.Application of Reaction Rate
    B.Application of Nernst's Distributive Law
    C.Possibility of Application of Adsorption in the Distinction
    Chapter 6.Humic Substances in Soil Peng Fu-quan and Lu Chang-qing
    Ⅰ.Oxygen-containing Fuctional Groups in Humic Substances
    A.Total Acidity
    B.Carboxyl Groups
    C.Phenolic Hydroxyls
    D.Total Hydroxyls
    E.Alcoholic Hydroxyls
    F.Carbonyls
    G.Quinones
    H.Methoxyls
    Ⅱ.Molecular Weight of Humic Substances
    A.Brief Survey of the Methods
    B.Principle of the Vapor Pressure Osmometry Method
    C.Determination Method
    Ⅲ.Preparation of Humic Substances
    A.Selection of Solvents
    B.Fractionation
    C.Purification
    D.Preparation
    Chapter 7.Specific Surface of Soil Colloid Ma Yi-jie
    Ⅰ.N2 Adsorption Method
    Ⅱ.Water Vapor Adsorption Method
    Ⅲ.Glycerol Adsorption Method
    Ⅳ.EGME(Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether) Adsorption Method
    Chapter 8.Charge Characterization of Soil Colloid Yuan Chao-liang
    Ⅰ.Charge Characterization and Its Significance
    A.Significance of Study
    B.The Method of Charge Characterization and Its Development
    Ⅱ.Determination of Charge of Soil Colloid
    A.NH4Cl Method
    B.Mehlich Method
    C.The Determination Method of Permanent Charge by pH0
    Ⅲ.Determination of Zero Point of Charge(ZPC)and Its Evaluation
    A.Potentiometric Method
    B.Evaluation on the Determination Method of the ZPC
    Chapter 9.Electrokinetic Phenomena of Soil Colloids Jiang Jian-min
    Ⅰ.The Discovery of Electrokinetic Phenomena
    Ⅱ.Different Kinds of Electrokinetic Phenomena
    Ⅲ.The Theory of Electrical Double Layer
    Ⅳ.The Equation of Zeta-Potential
    Ⅴ.Electroosmosis
    Ⅵ.Streaming Potential
    Ⅶ.Sedimentation Potential
    Ⅷ.Electrophoresis
    A.Moving Boundary Electrophoresis
    B.Micro-Electrophoresis
    C.Other Methods
    Chapter 10.Soil Hydrophilicity Shao Zong-chen
    Ⅰ.Soil Hydrophilicity and Its Indices
    Ⅱ.Measurement of Water Sorption and Swelling of Soil
    Ⅲ.Measurement of Soil Hydrophilicity Value
    Ⅳ.Measurement of Heat of Immersion of Soil
    Ⅴ.Measurement of Wetting Contact Angle of Soil
    A.Indirect MeasureInent
    B.Direct Measurement(Liquid Drop Test)
    Chapter 11.General Research Methods on Adsorption of Soil Chen Jia-fang,Zhao Mei-zhi and Yu Suo-fu
    Ⅰ.Significance and Development
    Ⅱ.Evaluation and Introduction of Methods for Determining the Cation-exchange-capacity(CEC)
    A.Survey of the Methods for Determining CEC of Soil
    B.Evaluation of Ammonium-acetate Method
    C.Error Source of Conventional Method
    D.Introduction of Correction Methods
    E.Determination Method of CEC of Soils Rich in CaCO3 orCaSO4
    F.Introduction and Evaluation of Quick Method Using BaCl2-H 2SO4
    G.Utilization of Different Values of CEC
    Ⅲ.Adsorption Isotherm and Its Equation
    A.Significance
    B.Introduction and Evaluation of Adsorption Isotherm Equation
    C.Application of Adsorption Isotherm Equation
    Ⅳ.Cation-exchange Equation and Its Application
    A.Significance and Development
    B.Introduction of the Equation
    C.Research Method
    D.Discussion on Research Conditions
    Ⅴ.Cation Adsorption Selectivity and Specific Adsorption of Cations
    A.Brief of Terms
    B.Determination of Cation Adsorption Selectivity
    C.Specific Adsorption of Cations
    Chapter 12.Viseosity of Soil Colloid Ma Yi-jie and Luo Jia-xian
    Ⅰ.Application of Viscosity and Basic Flow Patterns of Fluid
    Ⅱ.Ubbelohde Viscometry
    Ⅲ.Rotational Viscometry
    Ⅳ.Standard Funnel Viscometry
    Chapter 13.Application of Electron Microscopic Technique in the Investigations of Soil Colloid Gu Xin-yun
    Ⅰ.Recent Advance
    Ⅱ.Transmission Electron Microscope
    A.Resolution and Magnification
    B.Fundamental principle of Electron Microscope
    C.Structure of Electron Microscope
    D.Sample Preparation
    Ⅲ.Electron Diffraction Identifying for Clay Minerals
    A.Establishment of Electron Diffraction Technique
    B.Principle and Measure Technique of Electron Diffraction
    C.Characters of Electron Diffraction
    D.Types of Electron Diffraction Patterns
    Ⅳ.Scanning Electron Microscope
    A.Fundamental Principle and Structure
    B.Characters of Scanning Electron Microscope
    C.Sample Preparation
    Ⅴ.Electron Microprobe
    A.Fundamental Principle
    B.Structure of Electron Microprobe
    C.Sample Preparation
    D.Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis by Electron Microprobe Technique
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