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三峡工程生态与环境监测系统研究
  • 书号:9787030611987
    作者:黄真理,吴炳方
  • 外文书名:
  • 丛书名:
  • 装帧:圆脊精装
    开本:大16
  • 页数:336
    字数:
    语种:en
  • 出版社:科学出版社
    出版时间:1900-01-01
  • 所属分类:
  • 定价: ¥368.00元
    售价: ¥294.40元
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  • 购买数量: 件  可供
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目录

  • Contents
    1 An Overview of Project and Its Environmental Issues 1
    1.1 Features of the Three Gorges Project (TGP) 1
    1.1.1 The Dam Project 3
    1.1.2 The Resettlement Project 4
    1.1.3 The Power Transmission Project 5
    1.1.4 The Reservoir Characteristics 5
    1.1.5 Main Benefits of the TGP 6
    1.1.6 TGP Construction 7
    1.2 Pre-Dam Environment 8
    1.2.1 0verview of the Environment of the River Basin 8
    1.2.2 Environment of the Reservoir Area 10
    1.2.3 Main Environmental Problems of the Yangtze River Basin and the Reservoir Area 12
    2 TGP Environmental Impact Evalution 15
    2.1 Related Studies 15
    2.1.1 Research and Scrutinization 15
    2.1.2 Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) 16
    2.1.3 Scope, Hierarchical System, and Methodology of EIA 17
    2.2 Major TGP Impact on Environment and Comments 19
    2.2.1 Hydrology, Water Quality, and Underground Water 19
    2.2.2 Fish and Aquatic Life 25
    2.2.3 Terrestrial Animals and Plants 30
    2.2.5 Agricultural Ecology and Environment 38
    2.2.6 Impact on the Ecology and Environment of the Estuary Area 38
    2.2.7 Public Health 40
    2.2.8 Social Environment 41
    2.2.9 Construction Sites 42
    2.2.10 Reservoir Sedimentation and Scouring of Riverbed Downstream 43
    2.2.11 Environmental Geology 47
    2.3 Major Countermeasures Adopted Since the Start of TGP 49
    3 Eco-Environmental Protection and Monitoring of the Famous Dams in the World 51
    3.1 Environmental Protection and Monitoring of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt 51
    3.1.1 Aswan High Dam 51
    3.1.2 Impact of the Project 54
    3.1.3 Protection and Monitoring 54
    3.1.4 Causes for Arousing International Concern 59
    3.2 Environmental Protection and Monitoring of the Itaipu Dam in Brazil 60
    3.2.1 Itaipu Dam in Brazil 60
    3.2.2 Environmental Impact of the Dam 60
    3.2.3 Monitoring 61
    3.2.4 Environment Protection and Improvement Measures 64
    3.3 Environmental Protection and Monitoring of the Glen Canyon Dam in USA 67
    3.3.1 Glen Canyon Dam of USA 67
    3.3.2 Project Impact 69
    3.3.3 Monitoring 77
    3.4 Environmental Protection and Monitoring of the Ertan Project of China 85
    3.4.1 Project Impact 86
    3.4.2 Monitoring 87
    3.4.3 Environmental Protection 87
    4 Structure of the TGP Eco-Environmental Monitoring System 89
    4.1 Eco-environmental Monitoring in the Pre-dam Period 89
    4.1.1 Hydrology and Water Quality 89
    4.1.2 Pollution Sources Monitoring 91
    4.1.3 Climate 91
    4.1.4 Fishery Resource and Environment 91
    4.1.5 Water Loss and Soil Erosion 92
    4.1.6 Public Health 92
    4.1.7 Monitoring of Other Targets Associated with Eco-environment 92
    4.1.8 Environmental Monitoring and Research 92
    4.2 Establishment and Improvement of the TGP Eco-environmental Monitoring System 93
    4.2.1 TGP Monitoring System 93
    4.2.2 Establishment of the Monitoring System 94
    4.2.3 Adjustment of the Monitoring System 95
    4.3 General Structure 98
    4.3.1 Master Design of the System 98
    4.3.2 Monitoring Scope 98
    4.3.3 Monitoring Indicator System 102
    4.4 Characteristics of the Monitoring System 104
    4.4.1 Project-Oriented 104
    4.4.2 Wide Coverage 104
    4.4.3 Multiple Monitoring Factors 104
    4.4.4 Systematic and Long Term in Nature 109
    4.4.5 Involving Multiple Areas, Sectors, Disciplines and Levels 109
    4.4.6 Integration of Monitoring and Experiments/Demonstration 109
    4.4.7 Information Management 110
    5 Sub-systems of TGP Eco-Environment Monitoring System 111
    5.1 Hydrology and Water Quality Sub-system 111
    5.1.1 Main Synchro-Monitoring Station of Hydrology and Water Quality of the Mainstem 113
    5.1.2 Main Monitoring Station of Typical City River Section and Pollution Belt 117
    5.1.3 Main Groundwater Monitoring Station (Xiaogang) 119
    5.2 Pollution Sources Sub-system 121
    5.2.1 Main Monitoring Station of Industrial and Domestic Pollution Sources 121
    5.2.2 Main Monitoring Station of Floating Pollution Sources of Vessels 123
    5.2.3 Main Monitoring Station of Non-point Pollution of Pesticide and Fertilizer 127
    5.3 Fish and Aquatic Life Sub-system 128
    5.3.1 Fish Resources and Environment Monitoring Leading Stations 130
    5.3.2 Main Monitoring Station of Fish and Rare Aquatic Animals 133
    5.4 Terrestrial Animal and Plant Sub-system 135
    5.4.1 Monitoring Targets and Requirements 138
    5.4.2 Monitoring Units (1996-2003) 138
    5.5 Local Climate Sub-system 139
    5.5.1 Regular Monitoring 139
    5.5.2 Vertical Climate Monitoring 139
    5.5.3 Monitoring Organizations (1996-2003) 141
    5.6 Agro-Ecology and Environment Sub-system 145
    5.6.1 Monitoring Targets and Requirements 145
    5.6.2 Monitoring Organizations (1996-2003) 147
    5.7 Estuary Ecology and Environment Sub-system 147
    5.7.1 Monitoring Targets and Requirements 148
    5.7.2 Monitoring Organizations 150
    5.8 People's Health Sub-system 152
    5.8.1 Monitoring Targets and Requirements 152
    5.8.2 Monitoring Unit (1996-2003) 153
    5.9 Sub-system of Socioeconomic Environment for the Reservoir Area 155
    5.9.1 Socioenvironment Monitoring Station in the Hubei Reservoir Area 155
    5.9.2 Socioenvironment Monitoring Station in the Chongqing Reservoir Area 157
    5.10 Remote Sensing Dynamic Monitoring Sub-system 159
    5.10.1 Monitoring Targets and Requirements 159
    5.10.2 Monitoring Unit (1996-2003) 160
    5.11 Ecological and Environment Experimental Station 163
    5.11.1 Terrestrial Plant Observation and Experimental Station 163
    5.11.2 Endemic Fish Experimental Station 167
    5.11.3 Zigui Ecological and Environment Experimental Station 170
    5.11.4 Wanzhou Ecological and Environment Experimental Station 173
    5.12 Other Ecological and Environment Monitoring Sub-systems 175
    5.12.1 Monitoring of the Construction Site 175
    5.12.2 Sedimentation and Scouring Observation 176
    5.12.3 Induced Earthquake Monitoring 178
    5.12.4 Geological Hazards Monitoring 179
    6 TGP Eco-environmental Monitoring Information System 183
    6.1 Orientation of the Information System 183
    6.2 Objectives of the Information System 183
    6.3 Architecture of the Information System 184
    6.3.1 The Middle Layer 184
    6.3.2 Database 185
    6.4 Functions of the Information System 188
    6.4.1 Functional Modules of the System 188
    6.4.2 Data Transmission Sub-system 188
    6.4.3 Data Processing Sub-system 188
    6.4.4 Information Release Sub-system 192
    6.4.5 Query and Analysis Sub-system 192
    6.4.6 Decision Support System 195
    6.4.7 System Maintenance and Management 195
    7 TGP Ecological and Environmental Impact Monitoring Achievements Before Impoundment 199
    7.1 Hydrology and Water Quality Monitoring 199
    7.1.1 Yangtze Monitoring Results 199
    7.1.2 Pollution Belts Monitoring Results 203
    7.1.3 Groundwater (Xiaogang) Monitoring Result 205
    7.2 Pollution Sources Monitoring Results 206
    7.2.1 Industrial and City Pollution 206
    7.2.2 Pollution by Floating Vessels 209
    7.2.3 Farm Chemicals and Fertilizer Non-point Pollution 209
    7.3 Fish and Other Aquatic Life Monitoring Results 213
    7.3.1 Fish Resource and Environment Monitoring 213
    7.3.2 Aquatic Animal Mobile Monitoring 215
    7.4 Terrestrial Animals and Plants Monitoring Results 220
    7.4.1 Terrestrial Plants in the Reservoir Area 220
    7.4.2 Terrestrial Animals in the Reservoir Area 221
    7.5 Local Climate Monitoring Results 222
    7.5.1 Features of the Local Climate in the Reservoir Area 222
    7.5.2 Principal Meteorological Disasters 225
    7.5.3 Vertical Climate Before the Reservoir Impoundment 227
    7.6 Agro-Ecology and Environment Monitoring Results 234
    7.6.1 Soil Ecosystem in the Reservoir Area 234
    7.6.2 Dynamic Monitoring of Plant Diseases and Pests 235
    7.6.3 Impact of Eco-Environmental Changes on Orange Belt in the Reservoir Area 238
    7.6.4 Dynamic Changes in Rural Energy Demand and Supply 238
    7.6.5 Crop Diversity in the Reservoir Area 239
    7.7 Estuary Eco-Environment Monitoring Results 243
    7.7.1 Soil Salinization 243
    7.7.2 Ecological Environment and Fish Resources 243
    7.8 People's Health Monitoring Results 247
    7.8.1 Population Life Statistics and Health Resources 247
    7.8.2 Communicable and Endemic Diseases and People's Serology 247
    7.8.3 Monitoring of Rodents, Mosquitoes, and Pathogen Carried by Rodents 248
    7.9 Socioeconomic Environment Monitoring Results 250
    7.9.1 Socioeconomic Environment of Hubei 250
    7.9.2 Social Environment in Chongqing 252
    7.10 Remote Sensing Dynamic Monitoring Results 254
    7.10.1 Time and Space Characters of Land Coverage 254
    7.10.2 Land Cover Dynamic Changes in the Reservoir Area 256
    7.10.3 10-Year Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) Change and Causes 257
    7.11 Achievements of Eco-Environmental Experimental Stations 259
    7.11.1 Terrestrial Plant Experimental Stations 259
    7.11.2 Endemic Fish Experimental Stations 262
    7.11.3 Zigui Eco-environment Experimental Station 267
    7.11.4 Wanzhou Eco-environmental Station 271
    7.12 Construction Site Monitoring Results 274
    7.12.1 Water Quality 274
    7.12.2 Air Quality 275
    7.12.3 Noise 276
    7.12.4 Conclusions 277
    8 Ecological and Environmental Morutoring After Reservoir Impoundment 279
    8.1 Necessity of Updating 279
    8.2 Adjustment of the Monitoring Indicator System 280
    8.3 Targets of Monitoring of All Sub-systems After Impoundment 283
    8.3.1 Pollution Sources Sub-system 283
    8.3.2 Hydro-Environment Sub-system 287
    8.3.3 Aquatic Life Sub-system 291
    8.3.4 Terrestrial Ecology Sub-system 292
    8.3.5 Wetland Sub-system 294
    8.3.6 Climate Sub-system (Local Climate) 295
    8.3.7 Social Environment Sub-system 296
    8.4 Comprehensive Analysis 297
    8.4.1 Hydro-Environment 297
    8.4.2 Biodiversity 299
    8.4.3 Socioeconomic Environment 300
    8.4.4 Assessment of Ecology and Environment Security 301
    8.4.5 Remote Sensing Analysis of the Ecology and Environment 303
    8.4.6 Development Sustainability 304
    9 TGP Eco-Environmental Protection Measures 307
    9.1 Special Environmental Protection Measures 307
    9.1.1 Adjustment of Resettlement Policies 307
    9.1.2 Water Pollution Control Plan for the Reservoir Area and Upper Reaches of the Yangtze 308
    9.1.3 Geological Disaster Prevention and Control Plan and Its Execution 309
    9.1.4 Green Belt Project Around the Reservoir and Its Execution 310
    9.2 Ecological and Environmental Protection Project Covered by the Project Estimates 311
    9.2.1 TGP Eco-Environmental Monitoring System 311
    9.2.2 Protection of Terrestrial Animals and Plants and Aquatic Life 311
    9.2.3 Strengthen TGP Ecological and Environmental Research 315
    9.2.4 Environmental Protection in the Construction Site 317
    9.3 Eco-Environmental Protection Program Incorporated into the Resettlement Estimates and Its Implementation 318
    9.3.1 Environmental Protection in the Resettlement Areas 318
    9.3.2 Reservoir Bottom Clearance 318
    9.3.3 Protection of Cultural Relics 318
    9.4 Supervision and Management of Eco-Environmental Protection 318
    9.4.1 Supervision and Management by Environmental Protection Departments 319
    9.4.2 Supervision and Management by Industrial Departments 319
    Appendix 1: Organization or Institutions Abbreviation List 323
    Appendix 2: Monitoring Indicators' Abbreviation 325
    Appendix 3: Animal and Plant Names in Latin, English 327
    References 335
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