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中国沙漠与沙漠化(英文版)
  • 书号:9787030173386
    作者:王涛
  • 外文书名:
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    开本:大16
  • 页数:848
    字数:1800
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  • 出版社:科学出版社
    出版时间:2011/7/7
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  • 定价: ¥580.00元
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本书是我国50年来沙漠与沙漠化基础和应用研究的重要成果总结。全书分四篇,十九章。科学地揭示了中国沙漠与沙漠化地成因和机制。有力论证了沙漠是自然界的产物,沙漠化则是人类不合理活动的结果,澄清了科学界关于沙漠与沙漠化认识的长期分歧,从而解决了沙漠治理重大基础理论问题。并以此为基础提出了我国沙漠化防治的战略,确立了主要的沙漠化防治技术体系。
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目录

  • Summary
    Preface One
    Preface Two
    Foreword
    Part Ⅰ Overview of Deserts and Aeolian Desertification in China
    Chapter 1 Introduction
    1.1 Progress in desert research in China
    1.1.1 An overview of desert research history in China
    1.1.2 Progress in desert research of China
    1.2 Aeolian desertification research and its progress in China
    1.2.1 Initial research into aeolian desertification in China
    1.2.2 Progress in aeolian desertification research over the past ten years
    1.3 Development trend in the researches of deserts and aeolian desertification in China
    1.3.1 Development trend of desert research
    1.3.2 Development trend of aeolian desertification research
    References
    Chapter 2 Outline on Natural and Socio-economical Features of Deserts and Aeolian Desertified Regions
    2.1 Climate
    2.1.1 Arid climate evolution in sandy regions
    2.1.2 Basic characteristics of the climate in sandy areas in China
    2.1.3 Climate zonation of sandy areas in China
    2.2 Geomorphology
    2.2.1 Regionally controlled geomorphology units
    2.2.2 Aeolian geomorphology in sandy areas
    2.3 Hydrology
    2.3.1 Runoff features in desert regions
    2.3.2 Hydrology of rivers and lakes in desert regions
    2.3.3 Flood and drought hazards
    2.3.4 Groundwater basins
    2.3.5 Hydrological regionalization in desert regions
    2.4 Soil
    2.4.1 Sandy Entisols
    2.4.2 Other Sandy Entisols
    2.5 Vegetation
    2.5.1 Flora
    2.5.2 Vegetation types and their distribution
    2.6 Social and economic situations
    References
    Chapter 3 Classification and Distribution of Deserts and Aeolian Desertified Lands in China
    3.1 Classification and distribution of deserts in China
    3.1.1 A history of the concept of deserts in China
    3.1.2 Classifications of deserts
    3.1.3 Distributions of deserts in China
    3.2 General characteristics of Chinese deserts
    3.2.1 Arid climate and low precipitation
    3.2.2 Abundant heat resources and high temperature difference
    3.2.3 Frequent blown sand activities
    3.2.4 Sparse and low vegetation,and few kinds of animals
    3.2.5 Huge sandy sediments
    3.2.6 Shifting dunes moving along the dominant wind direction
    3.2.7 Little runoff,abundant underground water
    3.2.8 Soil formation in the initial stage
    3.3 Types and characteristics of aeolian desertification in China
    3.3.1 Aeolian desertification and aeolian desertified land
    3.3.2 Types of aeolian desertification and aeolian desertified land
    3.4 Rules and characteristics of aeolian desertified land distribution in China
    3.4.1 Spatial distributions
    3.4.2 Temporal trends of aeolian desertification
    References
    Chapter 4 Natural Resources in Desert Regions
    4.1 Climatic resources
    4.1.1 Concept and characteristics
    4.1.2 Evaluation of climatic resources in desert regions
    4.1.3 Climatic disaster and the exploitation and usage of climatic resource
    4.2 Water resources
    4.2.1 Water resources in inland desert regions of northwest China
    4.2.2 Water resources in the eastern desert regions
    4.3 Land resources
    4.3.1 Types and distribution characteristics of land resources
    4.3.2 Evaluation of quantity and quality of land resources
    4.4 Vegetation in the deserts and aeolian desertified lands
    4.4.1 Pasture plants and forage crops
    4.4.2 Edible plants
    4.4.3 Medicinal plants
    4.4.4 Other economic plants
    4.5 Animal resources
    4.5.1 Big and middle size animals
    4.5.2 Rodent animals
    4.5.3 Bird resources
    4.5.4 Reptile and amphibious animals
    4.6 Mineral resources
    4.6.1 Coal
    4.6.2 Oil and natural gas resources
    4.6.3 Salt mines
    4.7 Tourism resources
    4.7.1 Unique phenomena in desert
    4.7.2 Natural scenic spots
    4.7.3 Other scenic spots
    References
    Part Ⅱ Evolution of Deserts and Aeolian Desertification in China
    Chapter 5 Evolution of Deserts
    5.1 Formation conditions for deserts
    5.1.1 Formation and evolution of dry climate in China
    5.1.2 Origin of sand materials in deserts
    5.2 The formation and development of deserts
    5.2.1 Occurrence of aeolian sand deposits and the formation of deserts
    5.2.2 Desert evolution
    5.3 Sedimentary records of desert areas in China
    5.3.1 The spatial and temporal characteristics of deposits in desert regions of China
    5.3.2 Examples of desert evolution records in desert regions of China since the early to mid-Pleistocene„research about stratigraphic sequences and ages of the Yulin and Aqiang Sections
    5.3.3 The high-resolution records of desert evolution in China since the late Pleistocene―the research of strata and their ages in the Salawusu River basin since 150 ka BP
    5.3.4 Preliminary study on oasis deposits at the southern edge of the Tarim Basin since 13 kaBP„an example from the Yutian-Hotan Oasis
    5.3.5 The formation and evolution process and genetic information recorded in desert deposits in China
    5.4 Aeolian desertification in the historical period
    5.4.1 Adjacent area of the Taklimakan Desert
    5.4.2 The Hexi Corridor and the Alxa area
    5.4.3 The northern part of the Ulan Buh Desert
    5.4.4 The Mu Us Sandy Land
    5.4.5 The Horqin Sandy Land
    References
    Chapter 6 Blown Sand Physics and Formation of Aeolian Landforms
    6.1 Laws of blown sand movement
    6.1.1 Characteristics of near-surface air stream
    6.1.2 Sand movement modes and their structure
    6.1.3 Determination and calculation of sand transport rate
    6.2 The role of sand movement in the formation of aeolian landforms
    6.2.1 Wind erosion processes
    6.2.2 Wind deposition
    6.3 Main dynamic types and characteristics of aeolian landforms
    6.3.1 Dynamic types and main characteristics of wind erosion landforms
    6.3.2 Main dynamic types and characteristics of wind deposition landforms
    References
    Chapter 7 The Causes and Processes of Aeolian Desertification
    7. 1 Natural factors leading to the formation of aeolian desertification
    7.1.1 Analysis on the natural background of aeolian desertification
    7.1.2 The influence of climatic variations in recent years on aeolian desertification in arid and semiarid regions in northern China
    7.2 Human activities and aeolian desertification
    7.2.1 Rapid increase of population pressure
    7.2.2 Unreasonable land development activities
    7.2.3 Irrational use of water resources
    7.2.4 Indirect influence of human activities on aeolian desertification
    7.3 Aeolian desertification development processes
    7.3.1 Pattern changes of landform features and landscape types
    7.3.2 Biological processes of aeolian desertification
    7.3.3 Artificial development and reversal processes of aeolian desertification
    References
    Chapter 8 Formation and Damages of Dust Storms
    8.1 Dust rainŽand dust storms in the historical period of China
    8.1.1 Dust rainŽevents in the historical period of China
    8.1.2 Dust storm events in historical period of northwest China
    8.2 Characteristics and damages of dust storms in China
    8.2.1 Characteristics of dust storms in China
    8.2.2 Damages of dust storms in China
    8.3 Meteorological and topographical conditions for the formation of dust storms
    8.3.1 Meteorological conditions
    8.3.2 Topographic conditions
    8.4 Influence of anthropogenic factors on the formation of dust storms
    8.4.1 Effects of disturbed ground surface
    8.4.2 Contribution of disturbed dust sources to the atmospheric dust load
    8.4.3 Man-made dust materials
    8.5 Status and development trend of dust storms in China
    8.5.1 Status of dust storms in northern China
    8.5.2 Development trend and control measures of dust storms in China
    References
    Chapter 9 Aeolian Desertification Monitoring and Assessment
    9.1 Indicator systems for monitoring aeolian desertification by remote sensing
    9.2 Aeolian desertification monitoring methods based on 3S techniques
    9.2.1 Technical principles
    9.2.2 Aeolian desertification monitoring methods based on 3S techniques
    9.3 Some results of aeolian desertification monitoring over the past 50 years
    9.3.1 Monitoring and assessment of modern aeolian desertification
    9.3.2 Monitoring and evaluation of aeolian desertification in typical regions
    9.4 Model of aeolian desertification assessment
    9.4.1 Outline of the assessment model
    9.4.2 Model of aeolian desertification assessment
    9.4.3 Discriminant analysis model of aeolian desertification
    9.4.4 Prediction model of aeolian desertification
    9.4.5 Evaluation models of aeolian desertified land
    References
    Part Ⅲ Case Study of Deserts and Aeolian Desertification in China
    Chapter 10 Sandy Land and Aeolian Desertified Land in Steppe Zones
    10.1 Hulun Buir Sandy Land
    10.1.1 General situation
    10.1.2 Impacts of geological structure and paleoclimate on the Hulun Buir Sandy Land
    10.1.3 The development process of aeolian desertification in the Hulun Buir Grassland
    10.2 Songnen Sandy Land
    10.2.1 General situation
    10.2.2 Status of aeolian desertified land
    10.2.3 Natural factors of aeolian desertification
    10.2.4 Human factors of aeolian desertification
    10.2.5 The damage from aeolian desertification
    10.2.6 Combating aeolian desertification
    10.3 Horqin Sandy Land
    10.3.1 The distribution of the Horqin Sandy Land
    10.3.2 Natural conditions in the Horqin Sandy Land
    10.3.3 The process of aeolian desertification in the Horqin Sandy Land
    10.4 Onqin Daga Sandy Land
    10.4.1 General situation
    10.4.2 Sedimentary record
    10.4.3 Formation age and evolution process
    10.4.4 Factors affecting the formation of the sandy land
    10.4.5 Modern wind erosion and aeolian desertification in reclaimed districts at the southern margin of the steppe
    10.5 Mu Us Sandy Land
    10.5.1 Ecological and geographic conditions
    10.5.2 Socio-economic conditions
    10.5.3 Developmental process and combating aeolian desertification
    References
    Chapter 11 Deserts and Aeolian Desertified Land in Desert Steppe
    11.1 Ulan Buh Desert
    11.1.1 Eco-geographical conditions
    11.1.2 Social and economic conditions
    11.1.3 Evolution of aeolian desertification
    11.2 Hobq Desert
    11.2.1 Natural conditions
    11.2.2 Social and economic conditions
    11.2.3 Sand damage of the Hobq Desert
    11.3 Tengger Desert
    11.3.1 Natural conditions and distribution patterns of the Desert
    11.3.2 Formation and changes of the Tengger Desert
    11.3.3 Modern development and trends
    11.4 Badain Jaran Desert
    11.4.1 General situation
    11.4.2 Dune types and characteristics
    11.4.3 Landforms
    11.4.4 Developmental history of the Badain Jaran Desert
    11.5 Aeolian desertification in the Hexi Corridor
    11.5.1 Main characteristics of aeolian desertification
    11.5.2 Resource exploitation and oasis aeolian desertification
    References
    Chapter 12 Deserts and Aeolian Desertified Lands in the Arid Regions
    12.1 Gurbantünggüt Desert
    12.1.1 Summary
    12.1.2 The past of the Gurbantünggüt Desert environment
    12.1.3 Present desert
    12.1.4 The future changing trend of the desert environment
    12.2 Taklimakan Desert
    12.2.1 General description
    12.2.2 The formation and evolution of the desert
    12.2.3 Modality types and evolution of blown-sand physiognomy
    12.2.4 The processes and causes of aeolian desertification
    12.2.5 Natural resources and the evaluation in the Tarim Basin
    12.3 Kumtag Desert
    12.3.1 Regional physical geographic features
    12.3.2 The source and formation of desert sand
    12.3.3 The basic characters of blown sand physiognomy
    12.3.4 Reconstruction and utilization
    References
    Chapter 13 Deserts and Aeolian Desertification in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    13.1 Aeolian desertification in the Gonghe Basin of Qinghai Province
    13.1.1 Location and distribution of aeolian desertified land
    13.1.2 Natural environment of aeolian desertification
    13.1.3 Material source of aeolian desertification
    13.1.4 Desert evolution and environmental changes
    13.2 Desert in the Qinghai Lake basin
    13.2.1 Distribution and types of sand dunes in the eastern shore desert of the Qinghai Lake
    13.2.2 Distribution and types of sand dunes in the western shore desert of the Qinghai Lake
    13.2.3 Sand source and changes of the desert
    13.2.4 Desert evolution
    13.3 Desert in the Qaidam Basin
    13.3.1 Aeolian sand landforms
    13.3.2 Material sources
    13.3.3 Modern aeolian sand deposition
    13.3.4 Desert evolution
    13.4 Aeolian dune development and environmental changes in the adjoining region of Puruogangriice sheet,North Tibetan Plateau
    13.4.1 Introduction
    13.4.2 Development of aeolian dune
    13.4.3 Formation mechanism of large crescent dunes
    13.4.4 Characteristics of deposit grains
    13.4.5 Formational mechanism of large barchan dunes
    13.4.6 Environmental changes recorded from aeolian dune profiles
    13.4.7 Conclusions
    13.5 Aeolian desertification in theYarlung Zangbo River and its Two TributariesŽregion in Tibet
    13.5.1 Status of aeolian desertification
    13.5.2 Causes of aeolian desertification
    References
    Chapter 14 Gobi Desert
    14.1 Features and types of gobi deserts
    14.2 Distribution,types and features of gobi desert in different regions
    14.2.1 Gobi desert on the Alxa Plateau
    14.2.2 Gobi deserts in eastern Xinjiang
    14.2.3 Gobi deserts in the northern Hexi Corridor
    14.2.4 Gobi desert in the Junggar Basin
    14.2.5 Gobi deserts in the Tarim Basin
    14.2.6 Gobi deserts in the Qaidam Basin
    14.3 Reclamation and use of gobi deserts
    References
    Chapter 15 Special Types of Sandy Lands and Aeolian Desertification
    15.1 Sandy Lands on the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain
    15.1.1 Natural conditions for the formation of the sandy land in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain
    15.1.2 Formation causes and characteristics of sandy land
    15.2 Coastal Sandy Lands
    15.2.1 The blown sand on the west shore of the Liaodong Bay
    15.2.2 Blown sand in the sandy coast of the Shandong Peninsula
    15.2.3 Coastal sandy lands around the Zhoushan Islands in Zhejiang Province
    15.2.4 Coastal dunes in Fujian Province
    15.2.5 Coastal aeolian sandy lands in Taiwan Province
    15.2.6 Coastal sandy lands in Guangdong Province
    15.2.7 Coastal sands in Hainan Province
    15.3 Sandy lands in the dry-hot valleys in southwest China
    References
    Part Ⅳ Control of Deserts and Aeolian Desertification
    Chapter 16 Strategy of Aeolian Desertification Control
    16.1 Principles and approaches to control aeolian desertification
    16.1.1 Fundamental principles of aeolian desertification control
    16.1.2 Approaches to control aeolian desertification
    16.2 Strategies and measures to combat aeolian desertification
    16.2.1 Strategies to combat aeolian desertification
    16.2.2 Measures to combat aeolian desertification
    16.3 Rehabilitation patterns of aeolian desertified lands in different climatic zones
    16.3.1 Rehabilitation pattern of aeolian desertification in semi-arid regions
    16.3.2 Rehabilitation pattern of aeolian desertified land in arid regions
    16.4 Measures to control aeolian desertification
    16.4.1 Vegetative method
    16.4.2 Checkerboard sand barriers
    16.4.3 Upright sand fences
    16.4.4 Combination of different measures
    16.4.5 Chemical dune stabilization
    References
    Chapter 17 Blown Sand Hazards and Their Control Measures
    17.1 Causes of blown sand hazards and their basic features
    17.1.1 Causes of the formation of blown sand hazards
    17.1.2 Basic characteristics of blown sand hazards
    17.2 Quantitative evaluations of blown sand hazards
    17.2.1 Evaluation of danger degree of aeolian desertification hazards
    17.2.2 Quantitative evaluation of wind erosion
    17.2.3 Evaluation of deflation and accumulation quantity of blown sand in a region
    17.2.4 Evaluation of blown sand hazards to traffic roads
    17.2.5 Evaluation of direct economic loss caused by blown sand hazards
    17.3 Basic approaches to control blown sand hazards
    17.3.1 Basic principles of controlling blown sand hazards
    17.3.2 Basic approaches for controlling blown sand hazards
    17.3.3 Degradation of grassland in western China and prevention of blown sand harm
    17.4 Combating and preventing blown sand hazards along railway and highway in sand region of China
    17.4.1 Preventing and combating blown sand hazards along railway in shifting dunes region(taking protection system in Shapotou Section of the Baotou– Lanzhou Railway as a typical case)
    17.4.2 Preventing and combating blown sand hazards along railway in Gobi region(taking protection system in Yumen Section of the Lanzhou– Xinjiang Railway as an example)
    17.4.3 Preventing and combating blown sand hazards along highway in extremely arid sand region(taking sand-defending engineering along the Tarim Desert Highway as an example)
    17.5 Combating and preventing wind-blown sand hazards in farmland
    17.5.1 Types of wind-blown sand hazards and its present status
    17.5.2 Combating measures of wind-blown sand hazards
    17.5.3 Successful cases
    17.6 Controlling wind-blown sand hazards on grasslands
    17.6.1 Lightening the grazing intensity and adopting rational grazing system to restore grassland vegetation
    17.6.2 Enclosing grassland,planting trees and restoring vegetation
    17.6.3 Protection of grassland vegetation and control of new sand sources
    17.7 Monitoring and forecast of blown sand hazards
    References
    Chapter 18 Regionalization of Aeolian Desertification Control in China
    18.1 Regionalization of aeolian desertification control in China
    18.1.1 Regionalization principles
    18.1.2 Regionalization for aeolian desertified land rehabilitation
    18.2 Blown sandy land development and rehabilitation in the sub-humid Huang-Huai-Hai Plain
    18.2.1 Principles of combating aeolian desertification
    18.2.2 Design of aeolian desertification control schemes
    18.3 Agro-pastoral zone of eastern Inner Mongolia
    18.3.1 Demarcation of the agro-pastoral zone
    18.3.2 The economic characteristics,land use and protection of agro-pastoral zones
    18.4 Semi-arid agro-pastoral zones in Shanxi,Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia
    18.4.1 Background
    18.4.2 Problems of land aeolian desertification
    18.4.3 Researches on aeolian desertification control
    18.4.4 Control districts
    18.4.5 Aeolian desertification control
    18.5 Aeolian desertification control of oases in arid desert zones
    18.5.1 Characteristics of the desert oasis eco-system
    18.5.2 Oasification and aeolian desertification
    18.5.3 Protection and construction of a desert-oasis eco-environment
    18.6 Pastoral area of the Tibetan Plateau
    18.6.1 Background
    18.6.2 Aeolian desertification in Tibet
    18.6.3 Regionalization of aeolian desertification control in Tibet
    18.6.4 Aeolian desertification control in Tibet
    References
    Afterward
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